Children often become ill frequently, which is primarily because their immune system is in the making. Exposure to germs, viruses and bacteria helps to develop antibodies, which in the future will keep them healthy. But as they grow up, diseases are daily bread, especially those of infectious origin.
The most common exanthematic diseases in childhood
These are disorders that, although they may also affect adults, are more common in children. Its name is because they usually manifest through an exanthema, that is, they cause eruptions in the skin, almost always reddish, appearing suddenly.
This disease is caused by the Varicella-Zoster virus, which belongs to the herpes family. It is characterized by the appearance of vesicles, which at first are filled with a clear liquid but then acquires a yellowish color. After a few days, the vesicles rupture and crust develops. They usually appear on the head and trunk, and cause pruritus and in some cases high fever.
Rubella is caused by a virus of the Togavirus family and is characterized by pink skin lesions, which usually appear first on the face, behind the ears and neck, but within a few hours they extend to the trunk. In this case, there is no pruritus but different inflamed lymph nodes may be noticed.
This disease is caused by the mumps virus, which belongs to the Paramyxovirus group. It is spread through coughs and sneezes and presents with an enlargement of the parotid glands, which are under the jaw, although at times can affect only a gland. In addition to the inflammation, it can give headache, fever and sore throat.
This pathology is caused by a virus of the Parvovirus family and is spread primarily through respiratory secretions. It manifests itself through a reddening of the skin, which starts in the face, usually on both cheeks, and then extends to the buttocks. However, high fever does not usually appear.
This disease is caused by a virus of the Paramyxovirus family and usually appears on the inside of the mouth, cheeks and the palate. Later, in about three days, it extends to the face and neck. Then the typical lesions appear: red and raised papules that produce pruritus. It can also cause cough, fever and muscle pain.
The most common non-rheumatic diseases in childhood
These are infections that can occur at any age but are also common in children, in which case the symptoms are usually slightly different from those of adults.
This disease is common in children 1 to 5 years old. It is usually transmitted through contact with other children, in day care centers or at school. It often causes chronic diarrhea that lasts for several weeks. Other symptoms are: inappetence, nausea, gas or bloating and low fever.
It is estimated that 3% of girls and 1% of boys suffer from this problem during their first years of life. E. coli is the main bacterium that causes cystitis, but not the only one. In this case, the most typical symptoms are: stinging while urinating or having a constant desire to go to the bathroom. Fever and loss of appetite may occur at times.
This disease, commonly known as the common cold, usually has a viral cause, and is more common during the fall and winter months, as well as when the child begins day care. It usually produces symptoms such as: rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, fever and cough, the latter may persist for a few more days, although the rest of the symptoms have disappeared.
It usually has a bacterial cause and also causes cough, nasal congestion and rhinorrhea, although the fever is usually high and a redness of the throat is noticed, almost always due to the presence of pus in the tonsils.
Acute otitis media
It is a fairly common infection in children under the age of three. In most cases it is due to bacteria, but it can also be caused by a virus. The most common symptoms are pain in the affected ear, fever and, curiously, diarrhea, especially in young children.