Manga, is the word with which the Japanese of today say “comic” or “comic.”
Although in the 18th century it designated the drawings of the Japanese painter Hokusai, who mixed images and text, later this word continued to be used for other works, which met more or less with this requirement.
In the post-World War II period, emonogatari are born in Japan, as a result of contact between Japanese cartoonists and Westerners
However, the real beginning of the manga as it is known today, was in 1947 with Tezuka Osamu, a broken doctor, who copied the style of Disney, created a history of robots Putcha, Tezuka, achieved an impressive success and in less than five years, had already created more than five new series, among which the most famous and known is Tatsuwan Atom (Astro Boy), his most famous creation.
His style, which already included the big eyes and the western features of the characters, was quickly copied and adapted by different cartoonists. Thus, the manga, gained an identity of its own with respect to its American “predecessor”.
In Japanese culture, where both terms come from, they have several characteristics in common and are part of the same cultural industry; however, they designate two different languages: the anime is an audiovisual product and the manga is a type of comic strip.
Anime is the abbreviation of the word animeishon, which is the Japanese transcription of the English word animation. While in Japan it is used to refer to any type of audiovisual animation product, in the rest of the world it designates only the animation produced in that country.
In fact, until the 1980s the term japanimation was used, as a simplification of the phrase “Japanese Animation”, an expression that is currently used in Japan to name the animation itself and differentiate it from the foreign one.
Authors such as Kothenschulte (2008) trace the origin of the anime in the utsushi-e (shadow theater) and the kamishibai (paper theater), shows in which a narrator explained to the audience what he was seeing to facilitate their understanding.
Thus, it is called Anime both television series, composed of seasons of 13 or 26 episodes of half an hour, and special as a bonus of the series, not directly related, to show scenes from another point of view or unexpected ; to feature films between 50 and 120 minutes with higher image quality; to the OVA (Original Animation in Video), productions of different duration only commercialized in video, and to the ONA (Original Animation for Internet, for its acronym in English), products specially designed for distribution in the Web.
Manga is a term originally coined by the Japanese engraving artist Hokusai Katsushika, in 1814, from the Chinese ideograms man (‘involuntary’ or ‘in spite of himself’) and ga (‘drawing’), translated literally as’ drawings capricious ». At the beginning of the twentieth century, it was used to designate cartoons. According to Schodt (1996), his precursors were the Toba-e (monochromatic drawings with fantastical, erotic, humorous and ironic twelfth century motifs), the giga (satires starring animals), the Kyoga or “crazy drawings” and, at the end of the nineteenth century, the Poncho-e (imitations of political-satirical drawings published in Japan Punch, a British magazine printed in Japan).
Currently, in addition to manga, the word gekiga (dramatic drawings) is used to designate comic strips of serious and realistic arguments, such as komikkusu (comic, in English).
These are magazines printed in a single ink, on low quality paper, containing between 10 and 25 episodes of different stories, in a total of 300 to 400 pages. In spite of its extension, they are designed to be read quickly, in an average of 20 minutes, given the preponderance of the image over the text, and then discarded; however, those that are successful are compiled in hardback books.